Whats Inside Your Mobile Phone

The latest smartphones can be used to perform all manner of tasks from taking pictures to providing us with GPS navigation and from connecting to the internet with wireless technologies to listening to the radio.

But, have you ever wondered what makes your phone tick?

Here we take a look at the main components that make up a mobile phone.

Mobile phone components

NAND flash is a memory chip that does not require power to retain data. Write and read cycles are however finite so memory is slowly lost over time. To combat this manufacturers often purchase this component with more memory than is described in the final products specification.

DRAM is another memory component where information can be stored and read from any position as opposed to a memory that is read in sequence. DRAM requires an electronic charge every few milliseconds to retain its information.

Display – The visual interface of a smartphone.

Application processor – This chip is designed to support the mobile operating system by controlling elements such as graphics processing, multimedia decoding and memory management. Popular examples include the Qualcomm Snapdragon processor which is used to run the Android operating system.

RF and FEM – This is the front end module that consists of a radio frequency antenna, transceiver and power amplifier. Simply put it is the component that lets the smartphone talk to the mobile phone networks cell towers.

Baseband is a chip that manages the telecommunication radio signals. It manages the functions that require an antenna excluding Bluetooth and Wi-FI.

PMIC is the power management component in a mobile phone that regulates the voltage and controls battery charging.

Power amplifier – This is the element that converts the low power radio frequency signal into a larger signal with greater power. This is used in the smartphone as part of the process for transmitting and receiving both voice and data communications.

Touch controller – This is a precision controller that identifies and tracks the users contacts with the screen whilst intelligently ignoring unintended touches.

GPS – Needs no description

Image sensor – This is the advanced image technology used to capture images and video on a smartphone. Examples include the Samsung CMOS image sensor which encompasses low-light technology and high speed frame rates with low power consumption.

Combo chip Wi-Fi/FM/BT is the chip that controls the wireless technology in a mobile phone such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and FM radio. Some of the latest versions of this chip also include GPS providing a single chip solution for manufacturers.

So those are the main components that you will find inside any modern smartphone.

Defining The Frames For Effective Communication

Sometimes we do not get the response we need from people. The responses we get from our parents, clients, children, partners or any other person may not be what we want. It can even be inadequate, hence, leaving us unsatisfied. The goal of good communication is to pass information accurately and get appropriate responses.

One of the approaches to this is to know how to use a framework of communication appropriately, and probably provide several options. This is to have an impression on the other party that they have free choice.

For example, if you ask the question: When do you prefer to date/meeting?

The only thing that is implied by this question is that the meeting will take place, however, that meeting may be delayed indefinitely because we did not set a precise framework. If you don’t put a precise framework, people often tend to delay because we send them a message that we will adopt to their preference. The disadvantage of this is that it results to delays, procrastination and indecision.

On the other hand, consider the following framework: When do you prefer to have a meeting this week? In this example, the exact frame is set thus making it clear that the choices have been limited. That is to say, although you have been given the freedom to make a choice, the choice you will make will be limited to this week. The framework (or the box) has been set to some limits as opposed to the previous framework.

Consider another question:When would you like a meeting this week? On Wednesday at 3:00 PM or on Friday at 09:00 AM?

In this question, we have defined a very clear framework. First: the meeting will be announced this week. Second: the meeting can only be conducted in either of the time periods specified. In this case we are only providing two options. The framework is quite clear and specific here.

People always interpret information in a way that suits or favors them. So, if we present a wrong framework, we get responses that are unfavorable. It is therefore, critical to narrow the framework to as few choices as possible. This works wonders because, people are under the notion that they have free choice while in the actual sense, their choices are limited. This is what we call the illusion of choice.

When I am lecturing to a group of students,I always ask the question before the students break for lunch: How many minutes of break would suit you, 45 minutes or an hour?

Imagine what would happen if I asked the whole group: How long would you like to take a break I would get X different answers. Wouldn’t I?

The same pattern can be observed in telephone sales. When are you comfortable with the next call / presentation, on Tuesday at 17:00 or Thursday 19:00? You get it?

You can also apply a variety of ways to communicate with your child: Would you like to do your homework before lunch or after lunch? Both cases imply that the task will be written, and this is the outcome you want, isn’t it?

Remember, the answer you get from your respondent largely depend on how you ask the question (the box). If the box is set too loose, the result is procrastination, delay and indecision. However, if the question is too tight, you may encounter resistance. For example: Can you clean your room now? The answer may be YES or NO. (Probably NO, right?)

To provide the right framework, you can frame your question like this: when can you clean your room, right now or after your homework? The framework is flexible. Giving choices and removing possible resistance.

This is a simple yet effective tool you can use to get the correct response, and there are many situations you can apply it.

Pbx Vs Key Telephone Systems

Does every technology that comes is the better version of the earlier one? Majority of you must have said yes because this is the most expected answer of this particular question. In this article, I am going to question this majority answer in a way. You are supposed to read the full article in order to reach the conclusion. The comparison I am going to make is between the Key Telephone System and PBX phone system.

Today, when you plan to buy the telephone system for your company, you might get confused because there are so many choices. These choices in spite of giving you variety aim at confusing you more and more which might lead to wrong purchase totally. If you listen to what I have to say, I will say that Key telephone system is good enough for the small and medium sized businesses. On the other hand, IP PBX systems are good for the large operations of business. Being a writer, I cannot think with a single path in my mind. I need to think about all the aspects and possibility which can crop up in that particular field.

Key Telephone Systems has multiple buttons which allows the user to select the company’s main office phone lines. On the other side of the coin, called IP PBX allows several chains coming from the central office and these can be shared with the help of the PBX. PBX is also at times referred to as switch.

There are several companies coming up with the VoIP technology like Samsung, Avaya, Nortel, and Panasonic and lots others. VoIP is quite obviously incorporated with the features which are very useful and flexible. This is the reason for such an escalation the VoIP technology has gained. Yes, VoIP is useful but before you choose this, let me explain the key features of conventional telephone system as well.

The button I talked about above is the features which have sustained the conventional systems till date. The CO lines are there by which you can connect to the other lines of that office as well. You are able to crack it if it is dead or not working. You will be informed if some other person is using the line. There are some particular lights which allow you to reach an end statement.

The choice of you called IP phone depends upon your specific requirements. The kind of requirements you have tells you what to choose. Be wise and choose what you require and not what you desire.

Understanding Digital Photography: Techniques In Getting A Great Picture

Have you heard of, There is more than meets the eye?

We use our eyes to view things in our environment. However, through time, man has devised ways on how to preserve the things normally seen and thus treasured, whether these are beautiful or not, and one of which is by using cameras.

The images that are captured by cameras can make our eyes see things that have happened before. Moreover, it enables the heart to wish for beautiful things to happen in the future.

These days, the biggest sellers in the camera market are the so-called digital SLR cameras. These are the modern gadgets that can trigger our creativity and seats of emotion.

Though relatively new, most people choose digital SLRs because it can be easily manipulated. However, having these cameras does not completely guarantee that the every captured image is great and perfect.

Following are some point by point guidelines that should be considered to maximize the expense of your digital cameras:


Zoom in to capture the part you want to emphasize. Thus, irrelevant objects or areas can be taken away or just allow them to soften.

2.Rule of thirds

When capturing a moving object, it is advisable to capture them moving into the imaginary tic-tac-toe frame from one of the two sides.

3.Shapes and lines

Capture a straight line at an angle by moving five to ten feet away to the side to capture at an angle.

4.Vantage point

To add significance or emphasis to an object, take a picture at a lower vantage point. Increasing the height away from the object can reduce its significance.


Pick out the dominant objects and arrange them so that they complement each other. However, unbalanced or asymmetrical objects are often more visually stimulating than balanced objects.


You can use the frames of your windows to capture an outdoor scene. You can also use doors and walls of a building to capture a person a walking person.

7.Indoor photographs

You can use natural lighting when you are taking candid shots so that the subjects will not be bothered by the flash coming out of the camera.

8.Camera adjustments

The aperture allows light to enter. You must learn how to adjust this properly and appropriately so that images will not appear as either very bright or very dim.

Lowering the shutter speed allows the image to be more exposed to light. You must learn the proper length of exposure so that images will not appear as blurry.

9.ISO speeds

Digital cameras have ISO speeds ranging from 100 to 800. The higher the ISO, the higher the cameras sensitivity to lights exposure. Be sure to master using this element along with the cameras aperture and shutter speeds.

10. Lens/Filters

There are digital cameras that allow additional lenses to be attached to the main lens, or the lenses can be completely interchangeable.

Lenses can be categorized as follows:

a. macro lens allows you to get closer to objects like insects and flowers

b. wide-angle lens used for capturing landmarks, and large and wide sceneries

c. telephoto lens allows longer zooms that let you get close to objects that are rather unsafe

Filters, on the other hand are used to:

a. soften the effect of the image
b. provide blurring on the edges for portraits that have sensitive moods
c. add light flares for the image to be more dramatic
d. to reduce glare so that pictures appear more saturated, crisp, and vivid.

However, if you still want to improve on the images that you have taken, the following list of software can allow touch-ups:

Adobe Photoshop
Apples iPhoto
Corel Paint Shop Pro
Google Picasa

Once you have understood and mastered the important points on digital photography and capturing pictures, you will soon realize that the keys in getting great pictures are: Even a simple aim and shoot camera and Creative ME.